NOTE:These are not the same as “standing upon the land.” The “rights of squatters” are greater than those who hold a legal title, but “standing upon land” is greater than the rights of squatters and adverse possessions. Adverse possession (or pre-emption) is a method of gaining legal title to land by openly occupying the land continuously for a number of years (as set by State law) while claiming “ownership” of the land. “Standing upon the land” has nothing to do with a legal title to and personal ownership of an “estate” or “realty,” which are commercial in nature.
Standing upon the Land
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Harris Developments by T. Harris, LLD specializes in Urban Planning contributing to underdeveloped countries:
Urban planners develop community land, making sure to balance commercial and residential needs. They decide where to place public parks, community centers and affordable housing options.What is Harris Developments, LLP success rate?
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HD~ STUDY RESEARCH PROVES“While economic progress is an essential component (of development), it is not the only component. Development is not purely an economic phenomenon. In an ultimate sense, it must encompass more than the material and financial side of people’s lives. Development should, therefore, be perceived as a multidimensional process involving the reorganization and reorientation of entire economic and social systems. In addition to improvements in incomes and output, it typically involves radical changes in institutional, social, and administrative structures as well as in popular attitudes and, in many cases, even customs and beliefs. Finally, although development is usually defined in a national context, its widespread realization may necessitate fundamental modifications of the international economic and social system as well”.
This program’s overall goal is to promote greater progress toward sustainable and pro-poor growth in developing countries by improving the design and implementation
of development strategies. The specific objectives are to:
identify the factors determining countries choices of different development pathways;
develop typologies that capture the defining characteristics and stages of development of developing countries;
identify the preconditions for successful policy changes in selected countries that have experienced successful forward leaps in economic growth and poverty reduction;
identify the types of development strategies that make sense for countries with different initial conditions by examining the role of agriculture and the linkages between agriculture and the rural and urban nonfarm economy at multiple levels for example, national and subnational;
develop analytical tools that are useful for countries undertaking strategic planning in the agricultural sector;
assess the characteristics of successful agriculturally-relevant strategies;
develop and test an integrated strategic planning package for agricultural ministries, including comprehensive conceptual frameworks, analytical tools, decision support systems, and knowledge management systems; and
support individual country efforts to incorporate information on development options and strategies into their strategic planning and implementation processes.
What are the Three Core Values of Economic Development?
According to Todaro, Development must, therefore, be conceived of as a multi-dimensional process involving major changes in social structures, popular attitudes and national institutions, as well as the acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality and the eradication of absolute poverty.
Development, in its essence, must represent the whole gamut of change by which an entire social system, tuned to the diverse basic needs and desires of individuals and social groups within that system, moves away from a condition of life widely perceived as unsatisfactory, toward a situation or condition of life as materially and spiritually “better”.
According to Prof. Goulet, at least three basic components as core values should serve as a conceptual basis and practical guidelines for understanding the “inner” meaning of development. These core values – sustenance, self-esteem, and freedom – represent common goals sought by all individuals and societies’? They relate to fundamental human needs that find their expression in almost all societies and cultures at all times.
The life-sustaining basic human needs include food, shelter, health and protection. When any one of these is absent or in critically short supply, a condition of absolute “underdevelopment” exists.
A second universal component of good life is self- esteem- a sense of worth and self-respect- of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. Due to the significance attached to material values in developed nations, worthiness and esteem are now-a-days increasingly conferred only on countries that possess economic wealth and technological power- those that have developed.
Now-a-days the Third World seeks development in order to gain the esteem which is denied to societies living in a state of disgraceful “underdevelopment.” … Development is legitimized as a goal because it is an important, perhaps even an indispensable, way of gaining esteem.6
Freedom from Servitude:
Arthur Lewis stressed the relationship between economic growth and freedom from servitude when he concluded that “the advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice.” Wealth can enable a person to gain greater control over nature and his physical environment than they would have if they remained poor.
It also gives them the freedom to choose greater leisure. The concept of human freedom should encompass various components of political freedom, freedom of expression, political participation and equality of opportunity.
It is interesting to note that some of the most notable economic success stories of the 1970s and 1980s (Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Turkey and China among others) did not score highly on the 1991 Human Freedom Index compiled by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
- Difference between Economic Development and Human Development
- 332 words short Essay on Economic Development
- Get complete information on Development of Moral and Spiritual Values
- What is the difference between Economic Development and Economic Growth?
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A 99-year lease was, under historic common law, the longest possible term of a lease of real property. It is no longer the law in most common law jurisdictions today, yet 99-year leases continue to be common as a matter of business practice and conventional wisdom.
Under the traditional American common law doctrine, the 99-year term was not literal, but merely an arbitrary time span beyond the life expectancy of any possible lessee (user) or lessor (owner).
William Blackstone (1723–1780, of Commentaries on the Laws of England fame) states that a lease was formerly limited to 40 years, although much longer leases (for 300 years, or 1000 years) were in use by the time of Edward III. The 40-year limit was based on the unreliable text “The Mirror of Justices” (book 2, chapter 27).
In the law of several US states, a 99-year lease will always be the longest possible contract for realty by statute, but many states have enacted shorter terms and some allow infinite terms.
Due to the influence of the ideas of Henry George at the time the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) was established in the early 20th century, all land in the ACT is held under 99-year leases, the first of which will expire in 2023.
The 99-year lease concept has been more common under the civil law regimes when it comes to concessions of territory: most concessions last for 99 years.
Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory resulted in the 99-year lease of Kowloon, New Territories to Britain in 1898
Destroyers for Bases Agreement
Rule against perpetuities
^ Mortgage News Daily web site article on a 99-year lease. Accessed 20 February 2008.
^ Cecil Adams, Why are leases made for 99-year terms?, 22 July 1977, found at The Straight Dope article on 99-year lease. Accessed 20 February 2008.
^ William Blackstone (1753), Commentaries on the Laws of England, Book 2, Chapter IX “Of estates less than freehold”
“Can people own land in the ACT?”
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Why the Fight Against U.S. Poverty Is a Must-Win
For many people, the war on poverty is a humanitarian one. In a country where it is believed that hard work will lead to success, it is difficult to see people barely make it by despite intense effort.
There are also economic reasons to end the poverty trap and help people become self-sufficient. Poverty greatly inhibits social mobility, and if young people can’t live better than their parents, the number of people who can’t escape poverty increases with each generation. This means the gap between wealthy and poor will get wider, and the economy will destabilize as more people need assistance from programs that have fewer people able to fund them.
The result could be a poverty trap for the nation as a whole rather than for individuals and communities. The fight against poverty must be won before the problem becomes too great to handle.
Is it possible to eliminate the poverty trap? If so, how?
Some of the latest thinking about this has been to focus on a two-generational model of poverty reduction, meaning that we cannot simply focus on children without also creating opportunities for employment, good health and better overall life chances to parents. We also need to be consistent. We cannot just say we want to improve our schools; we have to actually do it. That takes a great amount of investment at the local, state and federal levels, but it also means investments in neighborhoods. Almost ironically, it takes looking back at the old New Deal model that FDR developed, where the plan was to improve the economy at all levels, not just a specific segment.
What contributes most to poverty, and how do those factors play into the ability to escape poverty?
The contributing factors are historical and current structural racism and oppressive systems that maintain poor educational systems, unjust criminal justice systems, regressive taxation and legal exploitation, among others. Since structural racism plays such a large part in poverty, people of color tend to be in poverty more often. Beyond that, we see that educational opportunities, employment that offers opportunities for advancement, stable housing in safe neighborhoods and proper health care go a long way in helping people leave poverty and break the poverty trap.
Why is poverty such an important issue that needs to be addressed?
Poverty in the U.S. affects around 16 percent of the population. Try taking a 16 percent pay cut or have something affect 16 percent of your body and see if that does not affect your day-to-day life. It is a significant number, and it tends to be consistent, give or take a few percentage points, across industrialized countries. In the United States, we have to not only consider those who fall under the federal definition of poverty, but also people who live on the economic margins and are near poverty, struggling to make ends meet. They, too, affect the overall economy of a community, which influences political and economic decision-making. In countries where poverty runs even deeper, we have to consider human rights issues and the long-term health of a country’s population.HD~
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The inability to break the poverty cycle internationally is caused by many of the same factors as in the U.S., including the unavailability of capital and credit. However, developing countries have different challenges to contend with that make poverty even worse. War, famine, limited access to clean water, illiteracy, government corruption and disease can all keep people in poverty. Fortunately, many organizations exist solely to fight global poverty.
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RESEARCH STUDIES WITH EVIDENCE BASED THEORIES:
What is Urban Development?
Large cities, towns and even small neighborhoods do not spring up overnight. They are the result of careful planning by civil and design engineers, project managers, architects, environmental planners and surveyors. The integration
of these disciplines is known as urban development. Urban development is a system of residential expansion that creates cities. Residential areas are the primary focus of urban development. Urban development occurs by expansion into unpopulated areas and/or the renovation of decaying regions.
Population growth in major cities requires expansion. Urban developers look to neighboring natural territories to build needed housing and recreational areas. Natural expansion is the creation of residential areas in undeveloped or underdeveloped regions. Natural expansion requires the destruction of the wilderness. However, urban planners must work closely with environmental protection
agencies to ensure that protected wildlife and plant life are not destroyed.
In extremely populated areas natural expansion is not always possible. If a large city is surrounded by other cities, there is no place for the larger city to expand into. In this case urban planners look to renovate decaying neighborhoods, obsolete industrial districts, and other unused spaces. On a much larger scale than natural expansion, urban renovation requires the compliance of city-dwellers. City planners and urban developers carefully consider the needs of the population in renovating urban areas.
Sustainable development seeks to establish a balance between human needs and environmental preservation. Urban planners consider maintaining sustainable development in expanding and renovating urban areas. When an urban area expands into wildlife regions, much care is taken to integrate the wilderness with the developing city. Sustainable development in urban expansion focuses on curtailing the city’s production of pollution, increasing the availability of recycling facilities, and focusing on the efficient usage of alternative energies.
When an urban area is renovated, urban developers enact sustainable development by integrating alternative energies into the city’s power grid, removing pollution producing facilities, reusing building materials, and improving existing recycling facilities.
Urban development is a time consuming and expensive process. It requires joint efforts between organizations, institutions and individuals. It requires major funding by governments, corporations and individuals. The development of urban areas through renovation
and expansion require major transformations of existing neighborhoods, industries, transportation systems, sewage and waste management systems, technologies and cultures.
Urban developers must find a balance not only in preserving the natural environment and the development of a large city, but also in maintaining the culture and atmosphere of the original city. For example in the aftermath of hurricane Katrina urban developers in New Orleans are considering how to build a city safe from natural disasters, but also retain the vibrancy and culture of the famous city.
While urban development is a necessity as global populations grow, there are many criticisms of the system. Many consider the external influences of the government and urban planner’s to be detrimental to the development or renovation of urban areas. Critics of these external influences argue that the inhabitants of cities should have more influence in the renovation and development of their neighborhoods. Because urban planning is focused on future development, many argue that the field ignores current problems.
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Developing country Report
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Evidence Based Theories on Developing Countries and their economies:
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), or underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category. A nation’s GDP per capita compared with other nations can also be a reference point.
The term “developing” describes a currently observed situation and not a changing dynamic or expected direction of progress. Since the late 1990s, developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than developed countries. Developing countries include, in decreasing order of economic growth or size of the capital market: newly industrialized countries, emerging markets, frontier markets, Least Developed Countries. Therefore, the least developed countries are the poorest of the developing countries.
Developing countries tend to have some characteristics in common. For example, with regards to health risks, they commonly have: low levels of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene; energy poverty; high levels of pollution(e.g. air pollution, indoor air pollution, water pollution); high proportion of people with tropical and infectious diseases(neglected tropical diseases); high number of road traffic accidents. Often, there is also widespread poverty, low educationlevels, inadequate access to family planning services, corruption at all government levels and a lack of so-called good governance. Effects of global warming (climate change) are expected to impact developing countries more than wealthier countries, as most of them have a high “climate vulnerability“.
The Sustainable Development Goals, by the United Nations, were set up to help overcome many of these problems. Development aid or development cooperation is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social and political development of developing countries.HD~
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DEVELOPING COUNTRIESDefinitions1.1Measure and concept of development
1.2Terms used to classify levels of development
1.3Criticisms and other terms
2Common challenges2.1Urban slums
2.2Violence against women
2.4Water, sanitation, hygiene (WASH)
4Country lists4.1Developing countries according to International Monetary Fund
4.2Countries and regions that are graduated developed economies
4.3Newly industrialized countries
Developing economies according to the IMF
Developing economies out of scope of the IMF
Graduated to developed economy
Newly industrialized countries
(As of 2014)
Least Developed Countries
Graduated to developing economies (as of 2008)
The UN acknowledges that it has “no established convention for the designation of “developed” and “developing” countries or areas”. According to its so-called M49 standards, published in 1999:
The designations “developed” and “developing” are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.
The UN implies that developing countries are those not on a tightly defined list of developed countries:
There is no established convention for the designation of “developed” and “developing” countries or areas in the United Nations system. In common practice, Japan in Asia, Canada and the United States in northern America, Australia and New Zealand in Oceania, and Europe are considered “developed” regions or areas. In international trade statistics, the Southern African Customs Union is also treated as a developed region and Israel as a developed country; countries emerging from the former Yugoslavia are treated as developing countries; and countries of eastern Europe and of the Commonwealth of Independent States [the former Soviet Union] in Europe are not included under either developed or developing regions.
However, under other criteria, some countries are at an intermediate stage of development, or, as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) put it, following the fall of the Soviet Union, “countries in transition”: all those of Central and Eastern Europe (including Central European countries that still belonged to the “Eastern Europe Group” in the UN institutions); the former Soviet Union (USSR) countries in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistanand Turkmenistan); and Mongolia. By 2009, the IMF’s World Economic Outlook classified countries as advanced, emerging, or developing, depending on “(1) per capita income level, (2) export diversification—so oil exporters that have high per capita GDP would not make the advanced classification because around 70% of its exports are oil, and (3) degree of integration
into the global financial system”
Along with the current level of development, countries can also be classified by how much their level of development has changed over a specific period of time.
In the 2016 edition of its World Development Indicators, the World Bank made a decision to no longer distinguish between “developed” and “developing” countries in the presentation of its data, considering the two-category distinction outdated. Instead, the World Bank classifies countries into four groups, based on Gross National Income per capita, re-set each year on July 1. In 2016, the four categories in US dollars were:
Low income countries: $995 or less.
Lower middle income countries: $996 to $3,895.
Upper middle income countries: $3,895 to $12,055.
High income countries: $12,056 and above
Measure and concept of development
Least developed economies according to ECOSOC
Least developed economies out of scope of the ECOSOC
Graduated to developing economy
Newly industrialized countries as of 2013.
Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations, defined a developed country as “one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment”.
Development can be measured by economic or human factors. Developing countries are, in general, countries that have not achieved a significant degree of industrialization relative to their populations, and have, in most cases, a medium to low standard of living. There is an association between low income and high population growth. The development of a country is measured with statistical indexes such as income per capita (per person), gross domestic product per capita, life expectancy, the rate of literacy, freedom index and others. The UN has developed the Human Development Index (HDI), a compound indicator of some of the above statistics, to gauge the level of human development for countries where data is available. The UN had set Millennium Development Goals from a blueprint developed by all of the world’s countries and leading development institutions, in order to evaluate growth. These goals ended in 2015, to be superseded by the Sustainable Development Goals.
The concept of the developing nation is found, under one term or another, in numerous theoretical systems having diverse orientations — for example, theories of decolonization, liberation theology, Marxism, anti-imperialism, modernization, social change and political economy.
Another important indicator is the sectoral changes that have occurred since the stage of development of the country. On an average, countries with a 50% contribution from the secondary sector (manufacturing) have grown substantially. Similarly countries with a tertiary sector stronghold also see a greater rate of economic development.
Terms used to classify levels of development
There are several terms used to classify countries into rough levels of development. Classification of any given country differs across sources, and sometimes these classifications or the specific terminology used is considered disparaging. Use of the term “market” instead of “country” usually indicates specific focus on the characteristics of the countries’ capital markets as opposed to the overall economy.
Developed countries and developed markets
Developing countries include in decreasing order of economic growth or size of the capital market:Newly industrialized countries
Least developed countries
Developing countries can also be categorized by geography:
Small Island Developing States
Landlocked Developing Countries
Other classifications include:
Heavily indebted poor countries, a definition by a program of the IMF and World Bank
Transition economy, moving from a centrally planned to market-driven economy
Multi-dimensional clustering system: with the understanding that different countries have different development priorities and levels of access to resources and institutional capacities and to offer a more nuanced understanding of developing countries and their characteristics, scholars have categorised them into five distinct groups based on factors such as levels of poverty and inequality, productivity and innovation, political constraints and dependence on external flows.
Criticisms and other terms
There is criticism for using the term “developing country”. The term could imply inferiority of this kind of country compared with a developed country. It could assume a desire to develop along the traditional Western model of economic development which a few countries, such as Cuba and Bhutan, choose not to follow. Alternative measurements such as gross national happiness have been suggested as important indicators.
The classification of countries as “developing” implies that other countries are developed. This bipartite division is contentious.
To moderate the euphemistic aspect of the word “developing”, international organizations have started to use the term less economically developed country for the poorest nations—which can, in no sense, be regarded as developing. This highlights that the standard of living across the entire developing world varies greatly. Other terms sometimes used are less developed countries, underdeveloped nations, and non-industrialized nations. Conversely, developed countries, most economically developed countries, industrialized nations are the opposite end of the spectrum.
At the development level, anthropologist and researcher Jason Hickel has challenged the widely propagated narrative that the rich countries of the OECD help the poor countries develop their ecocomies and eradicate poverty. Hickel’s findings reveal that the rich countries “aren’t developing poor countries; poor countries are developing rich ones.”
Main article: Third World
Over the past few decades since the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the term Third World has been used interchangeably with developing countries, but the concept has become outdated in recent years as it no longer represents the current political or economic state of the world. The three-world model arose during the Cold War to define countries aligned with NATO (the First World), the Communist Bloc (the Second World, although this term was less used), or neither (the Third World). Strictly speaking, “Third World” was a political, rather than an economic, grouping.
Main article: Global South
The term “Global South” began to be used more widely since about 2004. It can also include poorer “southern” regions of wealthy “northern” countries. The Global South refers to these countries’ “interconnected histories of colonialism, neo-imperialism, and differential economic and social change through which large inequalities in living standards, life expectancy, and access to resources are maintained”.
One of the early criticism that questioned the use of the terms ‘developing’ and ‘underdeveloped’ countries, but one that did not confine itself to the economic sphere, was made by prominent historian and academic Walter Rodney:
In some quarters, it has often been thought wise to substitute the term ‘developing’ for ‘underdeveloped’. One of the reasons for so doing is to avoid any unpleasantness which may be attached to the second term, which might be interpreted as meaning underdeveloped mentally, physically, morally or in any other respect. Actually, if ‘underdevelopment’ were related to anything other than comparing economies, then the most underdeveloped country in the world would be the U.S.A, which practices external oppression on a massive scale, while internally there is a blend of exploitation, brutality, and psychiatric disorder. However, on the economic level, it is best to remain with the word ‘underdeveloped’ rather than ‘developing’, because the latter creates the impression that all the countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America are escaping from a state of economic backwardness relative to the industrial nations of the world, and that they are emancipating themselves from the relationship of exploitation. That is certainly not true, and many underdeveloped countries in Africa and elsewhere are becoming more underdeveloped in comparison with the world’s great powers, because their exploitation by the metropoles is being intensified in new ways.
Economies by region
Economic growth theories
Neoclassical growth model
Endogenous growth theory
Unified growth theory
Balanced growth theory
Fields and subfields
Most developing countries have these criteria in common:
High levels of poverty – measured based on GNI per capita averaged over three years. For example, if the GNI per capita is less than US $1,025 (as of 2018) the country is regarded as a least developed country.
Human resource weakness (based on indicators of nutrition, health, education and adult literacy; for example low literacy levels).
Economic vulnerability (based on instability of agricultural production, instability of exports of goods and services, economic importance of non-traditional activities, merchandise export concentration, handicap of economic smallness, and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters).
Main article: Slum
According to UN-Habitat, around 33% of the urban population in the developing world in 2012, or about 863 million people, lived in slums. In 2012, the proportion of urban population living in slums was highest in Sub-Saharan Africa (62%), followed by South Asia(35%), Southeast Asia (31%) and East Asia (28%).:127
The UN-Habitat reports that 43% of urban population in developing countries and 78% of those in the least developed countries are slum dwellers.
Slums form and grow in different parts of the world for many different reasons. Causes include rapid rural-to-urban migration, economic stagnation and depression, high unemployment, poverty, informal economy, forced or manipulated ghettoization, poor planning, politics, natural disasters and social conflicts. For example, as populations expand in poorer countries, rural people are moving to cities in an extensive urban migration that is resulting in the creation of slums.
In some cities, especially in countries in Southern Asia and sub-Saharan, slums are not just marginalized neighborhoods holding a small population; slums are widespread, and are home to a large part of urban population. These are sometimes called “slum cities”.
Violence against women
Main article: Violence against women
Several forms of violence against women are more prevalent in developing countries than in other parts of the world. For example, dowry violence and bride burning is associated with Ancient India but not the modern one, Bangladesh and Nepal. Acid throwing is also associated with these countries, as well as in Southeast Asia, including Cambodia. Honor killing is associated with the Middle East and South Asia. Marriage by abduction is found in Ethiopia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. Abuse related to payment of bride price (such as violence, trafficking and forced marriage) is linked to parts of Sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania.
Female genital mutilation is another form of violence against women which is still occurring in many developing countries. It is found mostly in Africa, and to a lesser extent in the Middle East and some other parts of Asia. Developing countries with the highest rate of women who have been cut are Somalia (with 98 per cent of women affected), Guinea (96 per cent), Djibouti (93 per cent), Egypt (91 per cent), Eritrea (89 per cent), Mali (89 per cent), Sierra Leone (88 per cent), Sudan (88 per cent), Gambia (76 per cent), Burkina Faso (76 per cent), and Ethiopia (74 per cent). Due to globalization and immigration, FGM is spreading beyond the borders of Africa and Middle East, to countries such as Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, New Zealand, the U.S., and UK.
The Istanbul Convention prohibits female genital mutilation (Article 38). As of 2016, FGM has been legally banned in many African countries.
People in developing countries usually have a lower life expectancy than people in developed countries. The burden of infectious diseases, maternal mortality, child mortality and infant mortality are typically substantially higher.
Undernutrition is more common in developing countries. Certain groups have higher rates of undernutrition, including women—in particular while pregnant or breastfeeding—children under five years of age, and the elderly. Malnutrition in children and stunted growth of children is the cause for more than 200 million children under five years of age in developing countries not reaching their developmental potential. About 165 million children were estimated to have stunted growth from malnutrition in 2013. In some developing countries, overnutrition in the form of obesity is beginning to present within the same communities as undernutrition.
The following list shows the further significant environmentally-related causes or conditions, as well as certain diseases with a strong environmental component:
Illness/disease (malaria, tuberculosis, AIDS, etc.): Illness imposes high and regressive cost burdens on families in developing countries.
Tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases)
Unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation and hygiene
Indoor air pollution in developing nations
Pollution (e.g. air pollution, water pollution)
Motor vehicle collisions
Non communicable diseases and weak healthcare systems
Water, sanitation, hygiene (WASH)
Main article: WASH
Further information: Water issues in developing countries and Water supply and women in developing countries
Access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services is at very low levels in many developing countries. In 2015 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that “1 in 3 people, or 2.4 billion, are still without sanitation facilities” while 663 million people still lack access to safe and clean drinking water. The estimate in 2017 by JMP states that 4.5 billion people currently do not have safely managed sanitation. The majority of these people live in developing countries.
About 892 million people, or 12 per cent of the global population, practiced open defecation instead of using toilets in 2016. Seventy-six per cent (678 million) of the 892 million people practicing open defecation in the world live in just seven countries. India is the country with the highest number of people practicing open defecation. Further countries with a high number of people openly defecating are Nigeria (47 million), followed by Indonesia (31 million), Ethiopia (27 million), Pakistan (23 million), Niger (14 million) and Sudan (11 million).
Sustainable Development Goal 6 is one of 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the UN in 2015. It calls for clean water and sanitation for all people. This is particularly relevant for people in developing countries.
Main articles: Energy poverty and Renewable energy in developing countries
In 2009, about 1.4 billion of people in the world lived without electricity. 2.7 billion relied on wood, charcoal, and dung (dry animal dung fuel) for home energy requirements. This lack of access to modern energy technology limits income generation, blunts efforts to escape poverty, affects people’s health due to indoor air pollution, and contributes to global deforestation and climate change. Small-scale renewable energy technologies and distributed energy options, such as onsite solar power and improved cookstoves, offer rural households modern energy services.
Renewable energy can be particularly suitable for developing countries. In rural and remote areas, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative.
Renewable energy can directly contribute to poverty alleviation by providing the energy needed for creating businesses and employment. Renewable energy technologies can also make indirect contributions to alleviating poverty by providing energy for cooking, space heating, and lighting.
Kenya is the world leader in the number of solar power systems installed per capita.
Indoor air pollution
Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a major health hazard. A major source of indoor air pollution in developing countries is the burning of biomass. Three billion people in developing countries across the globe rely on biomass in the form of wood, charcoal, dung, and crop residue, as their domestic cooking fuel. Because much of the cooking is carried out indoors in environments that lack proper ventilation, millions of people, primarily poor women and children face serious health risks.
Globally, 4.3 million deaths were attributed to exposure to IAP in developing countries in 2012, almost all in low and middle income countries. The South East Asian and Western Pacific regions bear most of the burden with 1.69 and 1.62 million deaths, respectively. Almost 600,000 deaths occur in Africa. An earlier estimate from 2000 but the death toll between 1.5 million and 2 million deaths.
Finding an affordable solution to address the many effects of indoor air pollution is complex. Strategies include improving combustion, reducing smoke exposure, improving safety and reducing labor, reducing fuel costs, and addressing sustainability.
Water pollution is a major problem in many developing countries. It requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has been suggested that water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of death and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily.
India and China are two countries with high levels of water pollution: An estimated 580 people in India die of water pollution related illness (including waterborne diseases) every day. About 90 per cent of the water in the cities of China is polluted. As of 2007, half a billion Chinese had no access to safe drinking water.
Further details of water pollution in several countries, including many developing countries:
Water pollution by country
Further information: Regional effects of global warming and Climate change adaptation
The effects of global warming such as extreme weather events, droughts, floods, biodiversity loss, disease and sea level rise are dangerous for humans and the environment.Developing countries are the least able to adapt to climate change (and are therefore called “highly climate vulnerable”) due to their relatively low levels of wealth, technology, education, infrastructure and access to resources. This applies to many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa or Small Island Developing States. Some of those island states are likely to face total inundation. Fragile states or failed states like Afghanistan, Haiti, Myanmar, Sierra Leone, and Somalia are among the worst affected.
Climate vulnerability has been quantified in the Climate Vulnerability Monitor reports of 2010 and 2012. Climate vulnerability in developing countries occurs in four impact areas: health, extreme weather, habitat loss, and economic stress. A report by the Climate Vulnerability Monitor in 2012 estimated that climate change causes 400,000 deaths on average each year, mainly due to hunger and communicable diseases in developing countries.:17 These effects are most severe for the world’s poorest countries.
A changing climate also results in economic burdens. The economies in Least Developed Countries have lost an average of 7% of their gross domestic product for the year 2010, mainly due to reduced labor productivity.:14 Rising sea levels cost 1% of GDP to the least developed countries in 2010 – 4% in the Pacific – with 65 billion dollars annually lost from the world economy. Another example is the impact on fisheries: approximately 40 countries are acutely vulnerable to the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on fisheries. Developing countries with large fisheries sectors are particularly affected.:279
In many cases, developing countries produce only small quantities of greenhouse gas emissions per capita but are very vulnerable to the negative effects of global warming. Such countries include Comoros, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu – they have been called “forced riders” as opposed to the “free riders”. Internationally there is recognition of this issue, which is known under the term “climate justice“. It has been a key topic at the United Nations Climate Change Conferences(COP).
During the Cancún COP16 in 2010, donor countries promised an annual $100 billion by 2020 through the Green Climate Fund for developing countries to adapt to climate change. However, concrete pledges by developed countries have not been forthcoming. Emmanuel Macron (President of France) said at the 2017 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Bonn (COP 23): “Climate change adds further injustice to an already unfair world”.
Climate stress is likely to add to existing migration patterns in developing countries and beyond but is not expected to generate entirely new flows of people.:110 A report by World Bank in 2018 estimated that around 143 million people in three regions (Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin America) could be forced to move within their own countries to escape the slow-onset impacts of climate change. They will migrate from less viable areas with lower water availability and crop productivity and from areas affected by rising sea level and storm surges.
Economic development and climate are inextricably linked, particularly around poverty, gender equality, and energy. Tackling climate change will only be possible if the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are met (goal number 13 is on climate action).
Over the last few decades, global population growth has largely been driven by developing countries, which often have higher birth rates (higher fertility rate) than developed countries. According to the United Nations, family planning can help to slow population growth and decrease poverty in these countries.
This section is in list format, but may read better as prose. You can help by converting this section, if appropriate. Editing helpis available. (May 2018)
Increased and intensified industrial and agricultural production and emission of toxic chemicals directly into the soil, air, and water.
Unsustainable use of energy resources.
High dependency on natural resources for livelihood, leading to unsustainable exploitation or depletion of those resources
Indebtedness (see Debt of developing countries)
Under performing civil service (see Civil service reform in developing countries)
The economies of many developing nations are tried to primary products and a majority of their exports go to advanced nations. When advanced nations encounter economic downturns, they can quickly transmitted to their developing country trading partners as seen in global economic downturn of 2008-2009.
This section is in list format, but may read better as prose. You can help by converting this section, if appropriate. Editing helpis available. (May 2018)
Trade Policy: Countries with more restrictive policies have not grown as fast as countries with open and less distorted trade policies.
Investment: Investment has a positive effect on growth.
Developing countries according to International Monetary Fund
The following are considered developing economies according to the International Monetary Fund‘s World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018.
Antigua and Barbuda
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
Federated States of Micronesia
Papua New Guinea
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
São Tomé and Príncipe
Trinidad and Tobago
Countries not listed by IMF
Countries and regions that are graduated developed economies
The following, including the Four Asian Tigers and new Eurozone European countries, were considered developing countries and regions until the ’90s, and are now listed as advanced economies (developed countries and regions) by the IMF. Time in brackets is the time to be listed as advanced economies.
Hong Kong (since 1997)
Israel (since 1997)
Singapore (since 1997)
South Korea (since 1997)
Taiwan (since 1997)
Cyprus (since 2001)
Slovenia (since 2007)
Malta (since 2008)
Czech Republic (since 2009, since 2006 by World Bank)
Slovakia (since 2009)
Estonia (since 2011)
Latvia (since 2014)
Lithuania (since 2015)
Three economies lack data before being listed as advanced economies. Because of the lack of data, it is difficult to judge whether they were advanced economies or developing economies before being listed as advanced economies.
San Marino (since 2012)
Macau (since 2016)
Puerto Rico (since 2016)
Newly industrialized countries
Ten countries belong to the “newly industrialized country” classification. They are countries whose economies have not yet reached a developed country’s status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, outpaced their developing counterparts:
Five countries belong to the “emerging markets” groups and are together called the BRICS countries:
Brazil (since 2006)
Russia (since 2006)
India (since 2006)
China (since 2006)
South Africa (since 2010)
List of countries by wealth per adult
Sustainable Development Goals
Women migrant workers from developing countries
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Discussion: What are the best ways to help developing countries?
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Helping people to help themselves provides the best long term improvements. So how to create an environment where people can help themselves.
To want to help yourself you want to know that you will be allowed to enjoy the fruits of your efforts. If your farm can be confiscated by the state, your new business taxed out of existence by the local mayor or your family or a neighbouring village can appropriate your land the willingness to invest effort and money in wider improvements quickly quickly disappears. So boosting institutions to ensure things like fair taxation, consistent fair and equi…(more)UpvoteShare· 1
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1. Help them achieve democracy and promote better institutions (punish/abolish corruption).
2. Educate the population and have them not rely so much on the government.
3. Invest there and promote (the development of) technology.
4. Don’t crush their economies by imposing impossible payments on loans/foreign debt.
5. Invest in renewable resources in order to make business operations cheaper.2.8k views · View UpvotersUpvote· 23Share
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To help the developing countries first we have to make a democratic and peaceful environment inside country. We have to abolish corruption from the country. We have to educate everybody. We have to give employment to each and every person. The political instability should be there.
Lot of foreign investment needed for the growth of industry transportation and communication. We have to provide a global agreement that provides all the developing country that nobody will attack on them.1.7k views · View UpvotersUpvote· 12Share
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Provide them cheap sources of energy which allows them to use affordable electricity and transportation just like rest of the world.2k views · View UpvotersUpvote· 34ShareFireSnakechuck ’em in rich countries maybe?Linda Anderson, Community Manager at Volunteer WorldAnswered Oct 22, 2018
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